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考研英语:从出题角度看图表作文的谋篇布局

网络   2013-12-13 07:27 【 】【我要纠错

一、出题形式

例1题目:Changesin People’s Diet

Studythe following table carefully and your composition must be based on theinformation given in the table. Write three paragraphs to:

1.statethe changes in people’s diet(饮食)inthe past five years;

2.givepossible reasons for the changes;

3.drawyour own conclusions.

Youshould quote as few figures as possible.

例2题目:CarAccidents Declining in Walton City

Rememberthat your composition must be written according to the following outline;

1.Riseand fall of the rate of car accidents as indicated by the graph;

2.Possiblereason(s)for the decline of car accidents in the city;

3.Yourpredictions of what will happen this year.

Yourcomposition should be no less than 120 words and you should quote as few figuresas possible.

例3 For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Health Gain inDeveloping Countries. Your composition must be no less than 120 words and youshould base your composition on the following instructions(given in Chinese):

1.以下图为依据描述发展中国家的期望寿命(lifeexpectancy)和婴儿死亡率(infantmortality)的变化情况

2.说明引起变化的各种原因

从以上例子可见,图表作文一般在题目中给出作文的标题和一个或几个统计表格、圆形图、曲线图或条形图,有时还用英文或中文提纲的形式给出提示,要求我们:

1)用文字描述图表,客观解释图表中所传递的信息,并找出某种规律或趋势;

2)就图表中所反映的某种趋势或问题分析其原因或后果。

二、写作要领

图表作文着重说明事实,常常是通过对图表中所反映的具体数据的说明、分析、比较,对某种事物或现象的事实或变化情况等加以说明,并提出结论或看法。因此,图表作文常常采用议论文体的写作方法。写好图表作文,关键在于能否读懂图表中所提供的信息,把握各信息间的联系,用准确流畅的语言把这一信息表达出来,并就这一信息发表自己的看法。

三、写作步骤

写图表作文时,要注意遵循以下步骤:

1)认真分析图表的含义,弄清图表中所含的信息及不同信息间的关系;

2)确定文章的主题思想,构思出文章的基本框架,筛选出能说明图表主题思想的典型数据;

3)编列文章的提纲;

4)根据文章的提纲,将各段的提纲内容扩展成段落,然后将各个段落组成文章,注意段与段之间的衔接与过渡;

5)检查与修改。

四、篇章结构

写图表作文时,常采用三段式的谋篇方式。文章的第一段往往分析图表中的数据变化反映什么问题或趋势,概述图表所揭示的信息。第二段分析造成这一问题或趋势的原因。第三段则展望未来的情况或提出解决问题的办法或建议。这一结构可以简单地表述为:

第一段:概述图表反映的主题思想

第二段:分析产生的原因

第三段:展望未来或提出方法或建议

五、作文模版(一)

问题解决型

As is shown in thepicture(graphcartoontable),itgoes without saying that the drawing aims at revealing a common problem(in China):______.Itsstatus as the focus of public concern mainly results from its profoundinfluence on individuals, collective and even the whole world. Each of usshould attach high emphasis on solving it.

As a matter of fact, the symbolicmeaning the picture conveys is deep and profound. Naturally and necessarily, thereare two major ways coping with this problem. The first way to tackle it is toappeal to authorities to take measures. Once achieving the success of solvingthe problem, the whole society also thrives/makes progress. Solving the problemcan accelerate better individuals’development. The other way that is worthadopting is to work out new laws. Where there are better laws, there are morehopes, vitality and development. These advisable laws eventually bringseconomic prosperity and social harmony. Finally, I can safely come to theconclusion that it is high time we enhanced the awareness of people that is everyvital to us. Only by these means can we succeed in solving the problem in thenear future.(1 Therefore, measures should be taken to terminate theridiculous affair. First and foremost, governments should establish someregulations to prohibit enterprises and people from making such misdeeds. What’s more, people should get ready to pass criticism upon such misdeedsanytime and anywhere. After all, it is necessary to develop our societyby performing hard work instead of talking nonsense.

In my opinion, it is imperative that we should take some drasticactions. On the one hand, we should appeal to our authorities to enact concrete laws to controlcommercial fishing. On theother hand, we should enhance people's awareness that oceanresources are vital to us and the ecological balance will be guaranteedwith the strategy of sustainable development. Only by doing so can we effectively protect our naturalresources. Also I am convincedthat we humans can overcome this difficulty and we will have a brightfuture.)

To conclude, we should not yieldto mediocrity regardless of seemingly insurmountable obstacles. So the prospectwe are looking forward to will be bright and encouraging.

作文模版(二)

正面现象歌颂型1

As is shown in thepicture(graphcartoontable), it goes without saying that the drawing aims atrevealing a common problem(inChina):______. It has attractedextensive attention of the society. Nowadays, increasingly more argumentationsabout it can be found in TV programs,newspapers,university classes and manyaspects of our everyday life.Its status as the focus of public concern mainlyresults from its profound influence on individuals, collective and even thewhole world.

First of all, ______________iscrucial for every individual.With its seemingly magic power, it can not onlyaccelerate better individuals’development, but serve as an efficient instrumentfor individuals to change the world. Those equipped with it are always admiredand respected, because it may endow them with more competence, chances, self-confidenceto overcome difficulties and handle problems.Those people appear to possess aspecial charm,bringing to others hope, passion and surprise,and,thus winningothers’favor and trust.It can directly promote the rapid progress of theorganization with its energy and indirectly spurs continuous development withthe good culture it generates.Through continuously promoting the socialproductivity, unceasingly improving the productive relationship, and graduallyenriching human material and spiritual wealth, ______________eventually bringseconomic prosperity and social harmony.

In short, where there isbetter______________, there are more hopes, vitality and development. When weare benefiting from it, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality toensure ourselves a brighter future.

正面现象歌颂型2

As is vividly in the picture(s),itis a contemporary social issue in China of common interests and permanentvalue. The picture(s)does reflect a thought-provoking social phenomenon whichis not uncommon nowadays.When weighing in the mind,we find an apparent tendencyunderlying this sight:_______________.

Simple as it is,what the pictureconveys to us is thought-provoking.With the development of economy and society,competition is becoming increasingly fierce.It is impossible for anyone tofinish a task without .Hence,people in mounting numbers put great emphasis on .In fact, it has been universallyacknowledged that the ability of s the most essential qualification that anyone who wants to achievesuccess should possess. Numerous examples can be given, but this will suffice. Acase in point is the successful host of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games and thedeadly earthquake in Si Chuan province.These cases effectively clarify that reallycounts in this competition society.

Accordingly, it is imperative forus to take some measures to enhance the sense of in our society. We should bear inmind that is of greatsignificance to both our society and ourselves. Everyone should have theability of______. Only in this way can we achieve success and only inthis way can our society become more harmonious to live in.

反面现象批评型

How enlightening and compellingthe above drawing is!It is so funny that whoever sees it cannot helpthinking:_____.(这句自己加完整,从宏观上描述一下图画就可以,笼统的,大体的)______while_______.(这句从微观上具体说明一下图画要描述的矛盾点,必须找到矛盾点,用到while这个单词)Simple as it looks,its intended meaning goesfar deeper what on earth does the drawer really aim to convey.

第二段:

What the image above vividlymirrors goes far more than a simple image,instead,it carries a thoughtprovoking social phenomenon:____.(本文的主旨)There are upsetting(如文章不是讽刺性的,就把upsetting删除)parallels today in ourcontemporary community. For example,______.(举2个例子,如果字数够就举1个)

第三段:

Much can be done. To begin withthe schools and the mass media should develop,guide and cultivate noble andworthy values and qualities among people,doing their utmost to awaken people ofthe growing threat of this worsening situation.(ofthis worsening situation自己可以换成主旨的词,如果不换,这样也可以。如文章不是讽刺性的,就把worsening删除)Whatis more,the authorities concerned should play a dominant role in takingnationwide actions to curb(如文章不是讽刺性的,就把curb换成promote)such practices.Inconclusion,all the society should make actively more sustained and concertedefforts.Although we still have a long way to go,a promising start has begun,anda happy,healthy and harmonious society may be not be far behind.

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