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2017年考研英语二真题答案解析(解析版)

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National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM)

2017年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

People have speculated for centuries about a future without work. Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again _1_ that technology be replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by _2_. A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.

A different and not mutually exclusive _3_ holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one _4_ by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives _5_, people will simply become lazy and depressed. _6_, today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for _7_ Americans. Also, some research suggests that the _8_ for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting _9_ poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many _10_ the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.

But it doesn’t _11_ follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the _12_ of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the _13_ of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could _14_ strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the _15_ of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.

These days, because leisure time is relatively _16_ for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional _17_ of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel _18_,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself _19_ a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for _20_ matters.

1.[A] boasting [B] denying [C] warning [D] ensuring

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。动词词义辨析。作家学者警示人们技术会代替人类劳动。boast吹嘘、自负。deny否认。ensure确保。warning警示,警告。

2.[A] inequality [B] instability [C] unreliability [D] uncertainty

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。上下文理解。根据后文富人会拥有所有资产,贫困地区也会扎堆,可以看出此处想表达不平等的意思。inequality不平等,instability不稳定性,unreliability不可靠性,uncertainty不确定性。

3.[A] policy [B]guideline [C] resolution [D] prediction

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。词义辨析。policy政策,guideline指导方针,resolution决心,prediction预测。该句意为:另外一种预测认为……。

4.[A] characterized [B]divided [C] balanced [D]measured

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。动词词义辨析。该句意为未来社会的特点是无目的性。

5. [A] wisdom [B] meaning [C] glory [D] freedom

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。词义辨析,上下文理解。没有了工作富裕生活的意义,人们会变得懒散沮丧。其他几项不符合题意。

6. [A] Instead [B] Indeed [C] Thus [D] Nevertheless

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。考查副词。Indeed实际上,那些失业者生活并不美好。

7.[A] rich [B] urban [C]working [D] educated

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。上下文理解。前面提到失业的美国人在和工作的美国人做对比。

8.[A] explanation [B] requirement [C] compensation [D] substitute

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。词义辨析。死亡率升高,心理健康问题等是因为没有工资待遇较好的工作,这就解释了原因问题。Explanation符合题意。

9.[A] under [B] beyond [C] alongside [D] among

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。介词辨析。没有受到良好教育的中年人中间这些问题比较严重。

10.[A] leave behind [B] make up [C] worry about [D] set aside

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。固定搭配意思辨析。Worry about担心,leave behind丢弃,使落后make up 组成,set aside 留出,把……放在一旁。该句意为这就是为什么人们担心未来无工作的无聊。

11.[A] statistically [B] occasionally [C] necessarily [D] economically

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。副词词义辨析。Necessarily必然地,statistically统计地,occasionally偶然地,economically经济上地。该句想表达并不必然的意思。

12.[A] chances [B] downsides [C] benefits [D] principles

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。理解上下文。前面说没有工作会导致不安,这些观念是来源于在职业概念的社会中失业的消极面。

13. [A] absence [B] height [C] face [D] course

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。固定搭配。In absence of 缺乏,in height of 在…高度,in face of 面临,in course of 在…中。该句意为如果没有工作,也就是in absence of job。

14. [A] disturb [B] restore [C] exclude [D] yield

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。动词词义辨析。没有工作的社会能为人们带来放松。Yield 有获得,带来的意思,disturb打扰,妨碍,restore恢复,交还,exclude排斥

15. [A] model [B] practice [C] virtue [D] hardship

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。词义辨析。根据后面工作的缺点可以推测此处想表达工作的优点被过分夸大了。virtue优点,好处。

16.[A] tricky [B] lengthy [C] mysterious [D] scarce

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。词义辨析和上下文理解。休闲时间对工作人来说相对较少。

17.[A] demands [B] standards [C] qualities [D] threats

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。词义辨析。闲暇时间来平衡人们的智力和情感需求。

18.[A] ignored [B] tired [C] confused [D] starved

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。词义理解。下班回到家感觉到疲惫。Starved饥饿的。

19.[A] off [B] against [C] behind [D] into

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。固定搭配和介词使用。Throw into投身于,throw off摆脱,throw against扔掉,throw behind抛开。投身到自己的爱好之中。

20. [A] technological [B] professional [C] educational [D] interpersonal

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。词义辨析。一些需要专业技能的项目。

【试题点评】完型填空为了测试考生实际应用英语的能力和语感。具体说来,是从语篇的角度综合测试考生的阅读理解能力、词汇的掌握和对英语习惯用语的熟悉程度、以及语法规则的灵活运用。这部分大家一定要注重思路和寻找线索能力的训练,一般做题的基本思路是,根据已知信息去填空,根据空前后的线索来选择填什么。比方说,题目让考生填主句的内容,那么从句中就会有相应的说明。题目让考生填动词,原文常常在别的地方出现这个动词的同义词。那么如何判断呢?首先根据需要填写动词后面出现的宾语,找到有同一宾语的句子,该句中的动词就是所需填写词的同义词。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网强化阶段英语强化班的完型填空部分有重点讲解。

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley’s world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.

Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches。 The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run—up to 2012—but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.” The success of Parkrun offers answers。

Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.

Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots”, concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education。 Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.

1.According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has______.

[A] gained great popularity

[B] created many jobs

[C] strengthened community ties

[D] become an official festival

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。通过题干可以定位在第一段,可以通过,每天超过五万人跑步、引发了400场运动在英国和在国外等信息得知,公园跑很受欢迎。

2.The author believes that London’s Olympic “legacy” has failed to______.

[A] boost population growth

[B] promote sport participation

[C] improve the city’s image

[D] increase sport hours in schools

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。通过题干伦敦和奥林匹克遗产可以定位到第二段,题目问的是伦敦奥运会的遗产没有做成什么事,题干中的failed to可以对应第二段即使看到了failing,但并没有答案。再往下看,伦敦奥运会承诺,人口将会更健康、更多冠军,但这并没有发生,not happed才真正对应failed to.

3.Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it______.

[A] aims at discovering talents

[B] focuses on mass competition

[C] does not emphasize elitism

[D] does not attract first-timers

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。这道题定位在第三段的中间,奥林匹克的倡导者相反,想要更多的参与运动创造更多的精英。

4.With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should______.

[A] organize “grassroots” sports events

[B] supervise local sports associations

[C] increase funds for sports clubs

[D] invest in public sports facilities

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。提到大众体育,作者认为政府应该投资公共的体育设施。政府在第四段的中间,讲到政府应该训练的空间、用钱去铺设网球场。这里是答案的同意转换。

5.The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is______.

[A] tolerant

[B] critical

[C] uncertain

[D] sympathetic

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。最后一段but转折后说,继任的政府卖绿地、减少本地政府的预算同时减少在体育方面的关注度,所以持批判态度。

Text 2

With so much focus on children's use of screens, it's easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck on you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.”

Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.

Infants are wired to look at parents' faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive — as they often are when absorbed in a device — it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother's attention. “Parents don't have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child's verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need,” says Radesky.

On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids' use of screens are born out of an "oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting" with their children: “It's based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you're failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn't learning from the screen doesn't mean there's no value to it—particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.

26. According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______.

[A]simplify routine matters

[B]absorb user attention

[C]better interpersonal relations

[D]increase work efficiency

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。细节题。根据题原文第一段“……digital products are there to promote maximal engagement.”可知,B选项中absorb和promote对应,user attention和engagement 对应。

27. Radesky's food-testing exercise shows that mothers' use of devices ______.

[A]takes away babies' appetite

[B]distracts children's attention

[C]slows down babies' verbal development

[D]reduces mother-child communication

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。细节题。根据原文第二段“She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children.” 可知,D选项中reduce communication和started fewer verbal and fewer nonverbal interactions对应。

28. Radesky's cites the "still face experiment" to show that _______.

[A]it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions

[B]verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange

[C]children are insensitive to changes in their parents' mood

[D]parents need to respond to children's emotional needs

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。例证题。根据原文第三段“……there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child's verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need” 可知,D选项中need to respond to children' s emotional needs和本句同意替换。因此D选项是正确选项。

29. The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______.

[A]protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies

[B]teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year

[C]ensure constant interaction with their children

[D]remain concerned about kid's use of screens

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。细节题。根据原文第四段“……oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting with their children.”可知,C选项中constant interaction 与always be interacting 同义替换,因此C选项是正确选项。

30. According to Tronick, kid's use of screens may_______.

[A]give their parents some free time

[B]make their parents more creative

[C]help them with their homework

[D]help them become more attentive

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。细节题。根据原文第四段“……particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child.”可知,A选项give their parents some free time和gives parents time 同义替换。

Text 3

Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn't academic.

But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated "race to the finish line," whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits-in fact, it probably enhances it.

Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.

If you're not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.

31. One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that_____.

[A]they think it academically misleading

[B]they have a lot of fun to expect in college

[C]it feels strange to do differently from others

[D]it seems worthless to take off-campus courses

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。细节题。根据原文第一段第二句话“After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it?”可知,本句用反问的形式表达了原因之一在于他们不想和其他人不同。所以C正确。

32. Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps_____.

[A]keep students from being unrealistic

[B]lower risks in choosing careers

[C]ease freshmen's financial burdens

[D]relieve freshmen of pressures

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。细节题。根据原文第三段的第二句话“Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes—all things that first-year students often struggle with the most.”可知,此句中pushes them ahead by preparing them for...与D选项 relieve freshmen of 进行同义改写。often struggle with the most对应的是本句中的Pressure,first-years students 对应freshmen。D选项全方位替换。

33. The word "acclimation" (Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to_____.

[A]adaptation

[B]application

[C]motivation

[D]competition

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。词义题。根据原文第三段最后一句话“Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.”可知,当谈到适应大学生活并且很快融入到一个全新的环境这个问题时,拥有空档年方面的经验可以减少相关的打击,这就使得专注去学习并且参与活动而不是______更容易。各选项代入,A最符合语义,和前面的adjusting to形成复现。

34. A gap year may save money for students by helping them_____.

[A]avoid academic failures

[B]establish long-term goals

[C]switch to another college

[D]decide on the right major

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。细节题。根据原文第四段第一句和第三句话“If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices.”可知,本句中financial impact与题干中的money 相对应,顺沿看后面的信息第三句“This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes.”可知,学生在确定专业时会有困难。综合前后语义,可知 D正确。

35. The most suitable title for this text would be_____.

[A]In Favor of the Gap Year

[B]The ABCs of the Gap Year

[C]The Gap Year Comes Back

[D]The Gap Year: A Dilemma

【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。主旨题。本文开篇通过学生对于空档年的看法——不接受,引出文章的主题词the Gap Year。第二段通过BUT作为转折,引出作者的态度,提到空档年的各种好处,可以帮助新生缓解压力,可以帮助学生确定专业以减少经济上的一些损失,由此可见,作者是支持、赞成的态度。所以A选项正确。

Text 4

Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.

In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work-such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep-that affect the lives of all Americans.

Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?

“It's already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says. We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?” “Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?”

Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.

For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.

While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.

“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.”

At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.

“We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.”

36.More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they_____.

[A]exhausted unprecedented management efforts

[B]consumed a record-high percentage of budget

[C]severely damaged the ecology of western states

[D]caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。细节题,根据原文第二段“In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires—nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago.”可知,B选项中a record-high percentage of budget与nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago对应,因此B选项是正确选项。

37.Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to _____.

[A]raise more funds for fire-prone areas

[B]avoid the redirection of federal money

[C]find wildfire-free parts of the landscape

[D]guarantee safer spending of public funds

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。细节题,根据原文第四We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?” “Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?”可知,选项D guarantee safer spending of public funds是本句的同义替换,因此D选项是正确选项。

38.While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that _____.

[A]public debates have not settled yet

[B]fire-fighting conditions are improving

[C]other factors should not be overlooked

[D]a shift in the view of fire has taken place

【答案】C

【解析】答案为C。细节题,根据原文第七段“While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation.”可知,选项C other factors should not be overlooked 是对本句的同义替换,因此选项C是正确选项。

39.The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to _____.

[A]discover the fundamental makeup of nature

[B]explore the mechanism of the human systems

[C]maximize the role of landscape in human life

[D]understand the interrelations of man and nature

【答案】D

【解析】答案为D。细节题,根据原文第八段:“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be,……”可知,选项D中 the interrelations of man and nature和The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked对应,因此选项D是正确选项。

40.Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should _____.

[A]do away with

[B]come to terms with

[C]pay a price for

[D]keep away from

【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。细节题,根据原文第九段“But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible,”可知,选项B come to terms with是本句的同义替换,因此选项B 是正确选项。

【试题点评】今年四篇文章难度一般。在我们整体的考研阅读当中,所需要具备的一个最重要的能力就是如何去看到题目之后,定准了位,并且找到那个我们真正应该找到的位置,在四个选项当中去找意思的原文最匹配的选项。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网强化阶段英语强化班阅读理解部分有重点讲解。

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. "We don't make anything anymore," he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.

Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing.

But there is also a different way to look at the data.

Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.

For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers-and upward pressure on wages. "They're harder to find and they have job offers," says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, "They may be coming [into the workforce], but they've been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing," Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.

At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.

At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he's trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It's his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. "I love working with tools. I love creating." he says.

But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials "remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession," says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.

These concerns aren't misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels.

"The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill," says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. "There're enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don't need to have much skill. It's that gap in between, and that's where the problem is."

Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. "Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives," she says.

[A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

41. Jay Deuwell [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill.

42. Jason Stenquist [C] points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore.

43. Birgit Klohs [D] believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.

44. Rob Spohr [E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

45.Julie Parks [F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.

[G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents.

41.【答案】E

【解析】答案为E。根据题干人名Jay Deuwell定位文中“They’re harder to find and they have job offers,”他们很难发现他们有工作邀请。harder对应选项 stiff(艰难地)。答案选E。

42. 【答案】A

【解析】答案为A。根据题干人名Jason Stenquist对应文中“I love working with tools. I love creating”,我爱与工具打交道,我喜欢创新,tool对应选项tools。答案选A。

43. 【答案】G

【解析】答案为G。根据题干人名Birgit Klohs,定位文中“remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,”记住他们的爸爸妈妈都下岗了,他们归因于生产萧条。文中blame对应选项blame。答案选G。

44. 【答案】B

【解析】答案为B。根据人名Rob Spohr,对应文中“The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,”工作之间的差距是那个不需要技能,而那些需要很多技能。文中skill对应选项skill(技能)。答案选B。

45. 【答案】F

【解析】答案为F。题干问Julie的观点,对应文中“We’ve never had so much attention from manufacturers.”我从没有得到过这么多来自制造商的注意,attraction对应选项attract(吸引)。答案选F。

【试题点评】新题型要求考生从整体上把握文章的逻辑结构和内容上的联系,理解句子之间、段落之间的关系,对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征有较强的意识和熟练的把握,并具备运用语法知识分析理解长难句的能力。新题型有三种题型,不同的题型考查的重点不同,因此有不同的解题思路和技巧,需要考生全面把握,尤其是对于完形填句(段)题和排序题,是对语言能力和阅读理解能力的综合测试,因此在要求上远远高于小标题选择题和观点例证题,考生有必要对这类题型的答题思路多练习,以提高自己在这个部分的应试能力。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网强化阶段英语强化班新题型部分有重点讲解。

Section III Translation

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

46.My Dream

My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realised that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! So I decided to look for some fashion-related courses that included writing. This is when I noticed the course “Fashion Media & Promotion”.

【答案】我的梦想

我一直梦想着能找到一个结合时尚与出版的工作。中学毕业前两年,我学习了缝纫设计课程,认为自己继而能够学习时尚设计。然而,期间,发现自己在该领域不够优秀,不足以在未来与其他富有创造力的人竞争。因此,得出结论:这条道路不适合我。在申请大学之前,我告诉大家自己会选择新闻专业,因为写作一直都是我最喜欢的事情之一。但是,说实话,当时这样说,是因为我认为时尚于我而言就是个梦想。我知道完全没有人相信我会进入时尚这一行。因此,我决定去寻找一些课程,既与时尚相关、又涉及写作。就在这时,我注意到了《时尚媒体与营销》这门课程。

【试题点评】翻译考查考生在准确理解的基础上,按照英语语法结构拆分句子,准确、通顺翻译汉语的能力。本次考试的翻译考点主要包含对并列句、定语从句、状语从句及固定词组等翻译的考查。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网基础阶段英语基础班班的翻译部分有重点讲解。

Section IV Writing

Part A

47. Directions: Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to

1) accept the invitation, and

2) introduce the key points of your presentation

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Don’t use your own name, use “Li Ming” instead.

Don’t write your address. (10 points)

【参考范文】

Dear Professor Williams,

I felt much honored when I received your invitation to give a presentation about Chinese culture to the international students of your college. I would much like to do this job. So I am writing to tell you something about the presentation to be given.

The focus of my presentation will be Chinese traditional festivals, such as the Spring Festival and the Mid-autumn Day. In the speech, I will introduce the origin and conventions of these festivals. For example, the Mid-Autumn Day, falling on the 15th of August in the Chinese lunar calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday for family members and loved ones to gather together. In addition to enjoying the glorious full moon on this day, Chinese people will also eat festival-moon cakes, recite ancient Chinese poems as well as guess lantern riddles. I believe these knowledge will help the foreign students obtain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture.

I am really looking forward to sharing these with all of the international students.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

【试题点评】具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网基础阶段英语基础班的作文部分有重点讲解。

Part B

48. Directions:

You should write about 150 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

【参考范文】

Reflected in the chart given above are the respective changes in the numbers of museums and their visitors in China from the year 2013 to 2015. It can be clearly seen that the number of museums was on a continuous rise from 6378 to 7811 in the two years, up more than 22%, and so did that of the visitors, with an increase of nearly 13% from 4165 to 4692.

What might account for the notable growths? Reasons are many, but the most important one, as far as I am concerned, is that with the boom of Chinese economy in recent years, our government has been placing an increasingly high value on the inheritance of traditional culture, which connects modern people with the historical past, allowing them to acquire a cultural and historical identity. What’s more, more attention is paid to tour Chinese traditional culture since the Chinese have improved living standards.

With the development of China, the increasing trend is bound to continue for some time in the future. From my perspective, it is a positive trend and should be encouraged, for it is not only beneficial for the preservation and rejuvenation of our ancestral heritages but also conducive to the cultural diversity of the world.

【试题点评】具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网基础阶段英语基础班的作文部分有重点讲解。

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