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2016年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题答案及解析

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2016年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)

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Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Happy people work differently. They're more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence  1    firms work, too.

  Companies located in place with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.  2   , firms in happy places spend more on R and development).That's because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking  3   for making investment for the future.

  The researchers wanted to know if the  4   and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would  5   the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities' average happiness  6   by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.

    7  enough, firms' investment and R intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were   8  . But it is really happiness that's linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities  9   why firms there spend more on R To find out, the researches controlled for various 10   that might make firms more likely to invest like size, industry , and sales-and-and for indicators that a place was 11   to live in, like growth in wages or population. They link between happiness and investment generally  12  even after accounting for these things.

  The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors 13   to "less confined decision making process" and the possible presence of younger and less 14   managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.'' The relationship was  15  stronger in places where happiness was spread more   16  . Firms seem to invest more in places.

    17  this doesn't prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least   18  at that possibility. It's not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help 19   how executives think about the future. It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward -thinking and creative and  20  R more than the average," said one researcher.

  1. [A] why                        [B] where                        [C] how                        [D] when

  【答案】C

  【解析】根据空格所在句子可以看出,空格处应该是一个引导宾语从句的从属连词,做influence的宾语。四个选项的意思中,只有C. how引导后面的内容做influence的宾语,前后意思合理。

  2. [A] In return                [B] In particular                [C] In contrast                [D] In conclusion

  【答案】B

  【解析】空格的前一句话的内容是:坐落在幸福人群所在地的公司投资更多的钱。空格所在句的内容是:坐落在幸福人群所在地的公司在…方面投入更多的钱。很显然,前后句子是总分关系。选项中,只有B选项可以体现总分关系。

  3. [A] sufficient                [B] famous                        [C] perfect                [D] necessary

  【答案】D

  【解析】根据空格处前后的内容,_____ for making investments for the future是做后置定语修饰longer-term thinking和happiness。幸福,这种持久的思维模式对于对未来进行投资_______,四个选项中只有D. necessary 做后置定语符合前后内容。

  4. [A] individualism        [B] modernism                [C] optimism                [D] realism

  【答案】C

  【解析】空格处的内容与inclination for risk-taking由and连接,构成并列关系,后面that come with happiness定语从句既修饰空格处的内容,也修饰inclination for risk-taking,所以选项中可以由that come with happiness修饰的只有C选项optimism。

  5. [A] echo                        [B] miss                                [C] spoil                        [D] change

  【答案】D

  【解析】空格处的内容和the way companies invested构成动宾搭配。只有D选项可以和the way companies invested构成通顺语义。故D项正确。

  6. [A] imagined                [B] measured                        [C] invented                [D] assumed

  【答案】B

  【解析】原文:So they compared U.S. cities' average happiness_______ by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas. 所以他们比较美国城市的平均幸福,这种幸福是根据盖洛普在上市公司的投资活动地区民意调查来________。 A imagined 想象,D assumed 假定与民意调查的客观性是不符的,故排除,C invented 发明,与文意不符,故选B measured,衡量,测量。

  7. [A] sure                [B] odd                [C] unfortunate        [D] often

  【答案】A

  【解析】此空的答案需要结合文章上下文来判断。这句话和本篇完型的第二段的首句的含义是相同的。本段首句其实是对于这一中心的重复阐述,因此选A。

  8. [A] advertised                [B] divided                        [C] overtaxed                [D] headquartered

  【答案】D

  【解析】原文:firms' investment and R intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were _________.公司的投资与研发强度与公司所_______的地区的幸福度相关。依据第7题的答案,我们可以推断,这句话所填写的单词和located应该是近义,故选D,headquartered设立总部。

  9. [A] explain                        [B] overstate                        [C] summarize                [D] emphasize

  【答案】A

  【解析】原文:…could something else about happier cities ______ why firms there spend more on R 此句也是对于本文中心的再次论证。还有其他的什么可以__________公司在幸福的城市加入研发投入力度吗? 这句话之后就是具体的原因陈述。故选A express 解释,阐释。

  10. [A] stages                        [B] factors                        [C] levels                        [D] methods

  【答案】B

  【解析】原文:To find out, the researchers controlled for various ________that might make firms more likely to invest - like size, industry, and sales ,为了找到答案,研究人员控制了各种各样的可能会让公司加大投资的_______--比如大小、行业和销量--,联系上下文,我们可以看出,这个空格其实就是下文size, industry, and sales的上义词,可以包含这三个名词的内容。故选B factors 原因,因素。

  11. [A] desirable                [B] sociable                        [C] reputable                [D] reliable

  【答案】A

  【解析】该句意思为:研究者掌控了各种使公司更愿意投资的因素(比如规模、行业、销售),也掌控了居住起来____的住处的征兆(比如工资或人数的增长)。此处需填入形容词,前后两句为并列关系,感情色彩应保持一致,所填词应和空前more likely to invest更可能投资,以及空后like举例的内容涨工资一致,也是好事,所以答案desirable可取的、令人满意的为正确选项。

  12. [A] resumed                [B] held                                [C] emerged                [D] broke

  【答案】B

  【解析】即使说明这些问题,总体来讲,快乐与投资之间的关系____。Resume继续、重新开始,hold保持不变,维持,emerge出现,break破裂。前后为递进,说明这些问题后,二者关系应仍然保持不变,所以hold为正确答案。

  13. [A] attribute                [B] assign                        [C] transfer                [D] compare

  【答案】A

  【解析】该句意思为:快乐与投资之间的相互关系对年轻的企业特别强烈,作者把这一点____于"缺少编纂的做决定过程"。此处考搭配,attribute…to把……归咎于,assign…to把……指派给,transfer…to把……传递给,compare…to把……相比较,其中attribute…to符合文意,作者把这一点归因于于"缺少编纂的做决定过程"。

  14. [A] serious                        [B] civilized                        [C] ambitious                [D] experienced

  【答案】D

  【解析】该题为并列平行关系考查,and前后情感色彩、所属范畴应保持一致,younger并列,应为less experienced缺少经验的,故为正确答案。

  15. [A] thus                                [B] instead                        [C] also                        [D] never

  【答案】C

  【解析】该句话上一句为The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong,此句为The relationship was 15 stronger,显然,二者之间为并列关系,因此选择also也。

  16. [A] rapidly                        [B] regularly                        [C] directly                [D] equally

  【答案】D

  【解析】此题考查副词。四个选项中,A选项rapidly意为"迅速地", B选项regularly意为"常规地",C选项意为directly"直接地",D选项equally"平等地"。此处讨论的是公司投资与快乐之间的关系。空格后指出,相较于在快乐不平等的地方,或者幸福感有巨大鸿沟的地方,公司更愿意在大多数人都较为幸福的领域投资, D选项equally是对inequality的反义复现,因此,D选项是正确选项。

  17. [A] After                        [B] Until                                [C] While                [D] Since

  【答案】C

  【解析】此处考察上下文的逻辑关系。上文指出,公司愿意在幸福的领域里投资, 而空格后则提到"这并不能证明幸福引发了公司扩大投资或者采用较长远的眼光看问题",显然,这二者之间是转折关系,正确选项为C选项While "然而"。

  18. [A] arrives                        [B] jumps                        [C] hints                        [D] strikes

  【答案】C

  【解析】空格所在句的前半句质疑了投资与幸福的关系,后半句的作者表现的态度是"believe", 因此此处要填入一个表积极立场的词,且能与后面的at that possibility构成搭配, 表明"作者"的认可态度。A选项arrive"到达",B选项jumps"跳跃",D选项strikes"打击;罢工",均不能与at that possibility搭配,C选项hints"暗示"符合语意,因此正确答案为C。

  19. [A] shape                        [B] rediscover                        [C] simplify                [D] share

  【答案】A

  【解析】结合文意,此处是在正面论述"当地文化和氛围"对公司运营的影响,且二者之间的因果关系一直贯穿全文。四个选项中,A选项shape意为"形成,塑造" B选项rediscover"重新发现", C选项simplify"简化",D选项share"分享", 其中只有A 选项最贴近语意,因此正确答案为A。

  20. [A] pray for                 [B] lean towards                [C] give away                [D] send act

  【答案】B

  【解析】此处考察固定词组。 A选项pray for意为"为……祈祷",B选项lean towards意为"向……倾斜",C选项give away意为"泄露; 失去;赠送",D选项send out意为"发送,发出"。空格所在句的前后语意为"快乐的人比普通人更加的具有正向思维,更有创造力,并且更加的_____研究和发展。"可知最符合文意的只能是选项B。

  【试题点评】2016年完形填空的整体思路仍是以实词为主的,紧跟往年出题思路。文章主旨在文章的首句及每一段的开头句中,答案分配也比较均匀。本题型为了测试考生实际应用英语的能力和语感。具体说来,是从语篇的角度综合测试考生的阅读理解能力、词汇的掌握和对英语习惯用语的熟悉程度、以及语法规则的灵活运用。这部分大家一定要注重思路和寻找线索能力的训练,一般做题的基本思路是,根据已知信息去填空,根据空前后的线索来选择填什么。比方说,题目让考生填主句的内容,那么从句中就会有相应的说明。题目让考生填动词,原文常常在别的地方出现这个动词的同义词。那么如何判断呢?首先根据需要填写动词后面出现的宾语,找到有同一宾语的句子,该句中的动词就是所需填写词的同义词。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网冲刺阶段英语冲刺班的完型填空部分有重点讲解,在强化班完形填空及考研词汇中也有所涉及。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

  It's true that high-school coding classes aren't essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon's School of Computer Science.

  However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it's not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers - but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It's not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.

  Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.

  The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that's become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but "we try to gear lessons toward things they're interested in," said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.

  The students in the Flatiron class probably won't drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the "Ruby on Rails" language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn - how to think logically through a problem and organize the results - apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.

  Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes -for the rest of their lives, The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want -the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that -the better.

  21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______

  [A] complete future job training

  [B] remodel the way of thinking

  [C] formulate logical hypotheses

  [D] perfect artwork production

  【答案】B

  【解析】观点题。根据题干Cortina holds回文定位在第二段。第二段指出Cortina认为过早的接触电脑是有益的,紧接着指出当小孩子学习电脑科学,他们就学习了如何去开发手机应用程序,或者创作艺术,或者验证假设。对于他们来说与大孩子相比,改变思维并不难。综上所述,[B]remodel the way of thinking是对原文"transform their thought"的同义置换。

  22.In delivering lessons for high - schoolers , Flatiron has considered their________

  [A] experience

  [B] interest

  [C] career prospects

  [D] academic backgrounds

  【答案】B

  【解析】事实细节题。根据题干关键信息"in delivering lessons for high-schoolers"、"Flatiron has considered",定位到第三段。整个第三段在叙述Flatiron School。其中,第三行The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but "we try to gear lessons toward things they're interested in"(高中生们上同样的课程,但是"我们力图以他们的兴趣来调整课程"),表明了该校开设课程的依据是"学生的兴趣",故选[B] interest。

  23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will ________

  [A] help students learn other computer languages

  [B] have to be upgraded when new technologies come

  [C] need improving when students look for jobs

  [D] enable students to make big quick money

  【答案】A

  【解析】细节题。根据Deborah Seehorn 定位到文章第五段最后一句。Deborah说他们学习的技能(如何思考问题具有逻辑性并组织结果)可以应用到编码语言中去。选项[A]帮助学生学习另外的电脑语言是对这句话的概括。

  24.According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to ______

  [A] bring forth innovative computer technologies

  [B] stay longer in the information technology industry

  [C] become better prepared for the digitalized world

  [D] compete with a future army of programmers

  【答案】C

  【解析】推理题。根据题干关键词"the last paragraph"和"Flatiron students"回文定位在最后一段。最后一段第一句指出Flatiron的学生不会全都进入IT界。紧接着第二句说明培养编码人员不是唯一目的,第三句进一步指出这些学生将会一生"被电脑包围"(生活在电脑时代),对比四个所给选项,[C] become better prepared for the digitalized world与原文意思一致,故正确。

  25.The word "coax"(Line4,Para.6) is closest in meaning to ________

  [A] persuade

  [B] frighten

  [C] misguide

  [D] challenge

  【答案】A

  【解析】词义题。根据题干关键信息"coax"(Line 4, Para.6),定位到最后一段第四行how to coax the machine into producing what they want(如何…电脑生产他们想要的),且该部分是与how computers think(电脑是如何思维的)并列的,都是学生学习的具体内容。正是因为两者并列,因此根据单词think可知coax同样含有一定比喻色彩,且coax指的是"让电脑生产他们想要的"一种手段或方式。persuade"劝说,劝诱",即"劝诱电脑生产他们想要的",语意恰当,是正确选项,本题正确答案为[A] persuade。

Text 2

  Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands-once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species 'historic range.

  The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened ."The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation ," said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as "endangered," a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats .But Ashe and others argued that the" threatened" tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action. and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken's habitat.

  Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat .The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat , USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years .And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let "states" remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species," Ashe said.

  Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, doesn't go far enough. "The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction, " says biologist Jay Lininger.

  26.The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____.

  [A]its drastically decreased population

  [B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage

  [C]a desperate appeal from some biologists

  [D]the insistence of private landowners

  【答案】A

  【解析】本题属于细节题,考查了考生对文章首段中关于草原鸡数量的变化的理解。根据对首段首句当中生物学家预测的数量是2百万,而在首段末句出现but转折以及末句当中关于草原鸡现在真实的剩余数量只有2万2千只,都可以说明草原鸡的数量急剧的下降;另外,这道题还有一种做法是通过第二段首句的主语的作用,某些情况下,文章中间段落的首句主语起到承上启下的作用,那么中间段落首句主语就会有概括上一段的作用,本文第二段的首句:The crash was a main reason USFWS decided to formally list the bird as threatened. 就是对第26题题干和正确选项的同义替换,根据第二段第一句的主语:the crash (这种暴跌),对应正确选项A。

  27.The "threatened" tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____.

  [A]was a give-in to governmental pressure

  [B]would involve fewer agencies in action

  [C]granted less federal regulatory power

  [D]went against conservation policies

  【答案】D

  【解析】本题属于推理题,根据题干信息:the "Threatened"tag 令许多环境学家感到失望,定位到第二段的第三句,因此,原因应该出自第三句之后,而第四句和第五句中间有很明显的转折词but,因此答案定位在第五句,很多同学可能会问,这里并没有表示原因的词去与题干当中的in that进行对应,但是在我们的钻石卡的课程中提到,原文当中给出原因的并不一定是直接给出表示原因的连词或者介词,在本文第三句的but Ashe and others argued that the "threatened" tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservation approaches. 当中的gave这个词是"使得"的意思,A使得B如何如何,也就是A是B的原因,因此这道题的答案是D (违反了保护措施)。

  28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____.

  [A]agree to pay a sum for compensation

  [B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat

  [C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job

  [D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations

  【答案】B

  【解析】本题属于推理题,根据题干当中给出的位置信息(第三段)以及表示条件与结果的逻辑关系的if这个信息,可以迅速定位到第三段的第一句,其中题干当中的if与文章当中的as long as 进行对应,而题干当中的表示结果的部分与as long as 之前进行对应,因此,正确选项应该出自as long as 之后,也就是原文当中的:they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. "签订一系列管理计划去恢复草原鸡的栖息地",对应到的正确选项是B (volunteer to set up an equally big habitat 帮助搭建同样大小的栖息地)。

  29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______.

  [A]the federal government

  [B]the wildlife agencies

  [C]the landowners

  [D]the states

  【答案】D

  【解析】本题属于细节题。答案定位在文章第三段最后一句,从Ashe所说的话中"states remain in the driver's seat for managing the species"可以得出,选项D the states在管理物种方面起着领导作用。

  30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______.

  [A]industry groups

  [B]the win-win rhetoric

  [C]environmental groups

  [D]the plan under challenge

  【答案】B

  【解析】本题属于推断题。答案定位在文章最后一段,从Jay Lininger所说的话中,可以得知他认为政府应该为导致鸟类濒临灭绝的产业负责任,因此可以得出,他最可能支持本段开头所提出的双赢的说法。

Text 3

  That everyone's too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.

  What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don't seem sufficient. The web's full of articles offering tips on making time to read: "Give up TV" or "Carry a book with you at all times." But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn't work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you're so exhausted that a challenging book's the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, "is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption." Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.

  In fact, "becoming more efficient" is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you'll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. "The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt," writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and "we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them." No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.

  So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You'd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us "step outside time's flow" into "soul time." You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. "Carry a book with you at all times" can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you're "making time to read," but just reading, and making time for everything else.

  31. The usual time-management techniques don't work because .

  [A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind

  [B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading

  [C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them

  [D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

  【答案】[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

  【解析】细节题。根据题干回文定位到第二段第一句"what makes…management techniques don't seem sufficient",,但是这句并没有提及原因。真正的原因是第二段最后一句"Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient"。(深度阅读需要的不仅仅是时间,而且仅仅通过高效率所获得的那种时间也不够),因此选项D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed为正确答案。

  32. The "empty bottles" metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to .

  [A] update their to-do lists

  [B] make passing time fulfilling

  [C] carry their plans through

  [D] pursue carefree reading

  【答案】B

  【解析】细节题。根据题干回文定位到第三段第五句:we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles(days, hours, minutes) as they pass。故正确答案应该与to fill…相一致。这句话中将时间单位天,小时和分钟比喻成了不同大小的瓶子。而压力来自于我们填充这些大小不一的瓶子时,即把自己的时间充实起来时。故正确答案为选项B。

  33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps .

  [A] encourage the efficiency mind-set

  [B] develop online reading habits

  [C] promote ritualistic reading

  [D] achieve immersive reading

  【答案】D

  【解析】细节题。根据题干定位到第四段第二句:…such ritualistic behavior helps us "step outside time's flow" into "soul time. (这种仪式化行为指代有助于我们从拜托时间流进入灵魂阅读),soul time 即选项D 中immersive reading (沉浸式阅读),故正确答案为选项D。

  34. "Carry a book with you at all times" can work if .

  [A] reading becomes your primary business of the day

  [B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with

  [C] you are able to drop back to business after reading

  [D] time can be evenly split for reading and business

  【答案】A

  【解析】细节题。根据题干中的carry a book with you at all times can work if, 可以定位到第四段倒数第二句 "providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state"(假定你经常沉浸在阅读中,以至于阅读成为一种默认设置),因此可以确定选项A reading becomes your primary business of the day(阅读成为你一天中的主要事情)为正确答案。

  35. The best title for this text could be .

  [A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading

  [B] How to Find Time to Read

  [C] How to Set Reading Goals

  [D] How to Read Extensively

  【答案】B

  【解析】主旨题。根据文章首段转折之后出主旨。But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.(但是其中一个特别悲哀的抱怨是:没有时间阅读)。第二、三、四段都在论证深度阅读才是解决之道。因此选项Dhow to find time to read为正确答案。

Text 4

  Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.

  Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.

  Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.

  From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.

  Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. Whlie younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those "just getting started in life" face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.

  Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said." I can't afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen." Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young."I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn't have college degrees,"Schneider said."I don't think people are capable of that anymore. "

  36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is .

  [A] trying out different lifestyles

  [B] having a family with children

  [C] working beyond retirement age

  [D] setting up a profitable business

  【答案】B

  【解析】根据题干给出的mark, successful life等词可以定位到第二段的第一句话,successful life可以找到原词,而mark对应milestone,including后面的内容就是这种生活的特征,包含"结婚,有孩子,有家,60岁退休",和选项对比,只有B项符合原文给出的特征。

  37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to .

  [A] favor a slower life pace

  [B] hold an occupation longer

  [C] attach importance to pre-marital finance

  [D] give priority to childcare outside the home

  【答案】C

  【解析】根据题干给出的段落序号可以定位到第三段,另又提到young people,故可以定位到第三段开头第一句话。题干问的是年轻人倾向于……,题干中的tend在这句话中可以找到同意置换词more likely,句子中后面有5个to do表示年轻人倾向于做什么,所以答案就在这些动词不定式中。和选项对比,只有C项符合原文的含义"婚前或者有孩子之前要有经济保障",属于同意替换。

  38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will .

  [A] become increasingly clear

  [B] focus on materialistic issues

  [C] depend largely on political preferences

  [D] reach almost all aspects of American life

  【答案】D

  【解析】根据题干给出的the priorities and expectations等词可以定位到第四段的第一句话的中间,that后面的内容是对这两个名词的修饰,故答案应该在这个从句中。和选项对比,只有D项符合原文。

  39. Both young and old agree that .

  [A] good-paying jobs are less available

  [B] the old made more life achievements

  [C] housing loans today are easy to obtain

  [D] getting established is harder for the young

  【答案】D

  【解析】根据题干给出的young and old等词可以定位到第五段开头,这句话有冒号,解释key point,所以答案应该在冒号之后,题目问的是他们同意什么,也就是观点,所以可以再缩小范围为believe后面的内容为正确选项的含义。和选项对比,只有D项符合原文,属于同意替换。

  40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?

  [A] He found a dream job after graduating from college

  [B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success

  [C] His parents' good life has little to do with a college degree

  [D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging

  【答案】C

  【解析】根据题干给出的Schenider可以定位到最后一段开头。这段话开头就说这个人认为今天的生活更艰难,后面的内容都在介绍他的生活。因为题干除了这个人名之外并没有给出其他更细定位的信息,可以选择从选项定位入手反推正确答案。C项说到父母的好生活在第四、五句有提到,尤其引号中的内容和选项相符,故为正确答案。

  【试题点评】英二阅读基本围绕经济类、生活类、文化类、法律类等主题来选材;出题方面,主要题型包括细节题、推理题、词义句意题、主旨题等。而在我们整体的考研阅读当中,所需要具备的一个最重要的能力就是如何去看到题目之后,定准了位,并且找到那个我们真正应该找到的位置,在四个选项当中去找意思的原文最匹配的选项。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网冲刺阶段英语冲刺班阅读理解部分有重点讲解,在基础班阅读基础部分的段与篇、谋篇、题型精析课程,和强化班的阅读理解A部分也均有涉及。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A] Be silly

  [B] Have fun

  [C] Ask for help

  [D] Express your emotions.

  [E] Don't overthink it

  [F] Be easily pleased

  [G] Notice things

  Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age.

  (1) As adults, it seems that we're constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their wellbeing instinctively and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.

  41_____

  【答案】D (Express your emotions)

  【解析】emotions一词在本段中原词复现了两次,而且出现了其下义词,比如sad, angry,本段最后一句提到对待情绪的方式是:acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately。选项D与此完全对应。因此确定正确答案为D选项。


  (2) What does a child do when he's sad? He cries. When he's angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. That's about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we feel appropriately and then-again, like children-move on.
  42______

  【答案】F (Be easily pleased)

  【解析】该段通过举例来说明段落主题,提到it cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed,本句话的含义是"虽然礼物不值钱,但是让她特别开心"。并且核心词overjoyed与小标题F中pleased属于近义词。该段第二句话在转折后提到the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels,即"这些东西对我们的幸福水平影响很小。"接着最后一句总结到"感激生活中的小事情是提升我们幸福感的一个好方式",因此本段重点在于强调要感激生活中的小事情,所以正确答案是F选项。

  A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was 9 years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.

  43_______

  【答案】A (Be silly)

  【解析】该段开头提及一个问题,那么问题的答案正是本段的中心句。第二句正是对问题的解答,根据本句话的前半部分:if we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, 核心词silliness与选项A中的silly为同源词,因此确定选项A为正确答案。

  Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and ever have a greater chance of fighting off infection. All of which would, of course, have a positive effect on our happiness levels.

  44______

  【答案】B (Have fun)

  【解析】首先明确本段中第二句为转折句,在找段落中心时,是必读部分。本句话含义是"成年人有能力按照自己的想法去享受时光(enjoy the things)",紧接着下句举例说明享受的这些快乐的事情分别有哪些。因此本段重点在于说明成年人可以按照自己的意愿享受快乐时光。故选择 Have fun。

  The problem with being a grownup is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the thing we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?)-it doesn't matter, so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.

  45______

  【答案】E (Don't overthink it)

  【解析】该段主题句是段落首句it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy,强调"我们不应该着急要快乐"。第二句借科学家的话提到这样做的不良影响,下文更是引用哲学家庄子的话来证明这一论点,最后一句再次突出,我们应以孩子为榜样,对于孩子来说,快乐不是一个目标,而是他们生活方式的自然副产品。可见,该段整体上是总分的结构,先提出论点再论证。此外too hard与选项E中的overthink属于近义表达,natural与overthink是反义复现。因此,答案选E。


  Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can back fire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said: "Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness." And in that, once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural byproduct of the way they live.


Section III Translation

  46.Directions:

  Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple: The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,000 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead began shopping emotionally-which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.

  【参考译文】超市旨在吸引顾客在自己店内停留尽量长的时间。原因很简单:顾客在店里停留的时间越长,看到的商品就会越多;而看到的商品越多,你就会买的越多。超市有大量商品。根据食品营销研究院所说,普通超市大概有44000种不同的商品;很多超市更是会比普通超市多上万种商品。众多选择足以让顾客面临各种信息,不堪重负。根据脑部扫描实验,需要做这么多的决定很快就会使我们难以承受。大约购物40分钟以后,大部分顾客就无法试图做出理性的选择,而会冲动购物--此时,在购物车里,我们已经装了一半根本没想买的东西。

  【试题点评】原文出自《国家地理》中的Surviving the Sneaky Psychology of Supermarkets超市购物的心理学,考查考生在准确理解的基础上,按照英语语法结构拆分句子,准确、通顺翻译汉语的能力。本次考试的翻译考点主要包含对并列句、定语从句、状语从句及固定词组等翻译的考查。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网冲刺阶段英语冲刺班的翻译部分有重点讲解,在基础班语法、长难句基础部分,和强化班的翻译及长短句部分也均有涉及。

Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47. Directions:

  Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend, Jack, wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation. Write him a reply to

  1) thank him, and

  2) give you advice

  You should write about 100 on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.

  Do not write the address. (10 points)

  【参考范文】

  Dear Jack,

  Your letter of congratulations was received. Thank you for your nice words on my winning the contest. In the letter, you asked me about the skills to do translation, so the following are my advice for you.

  Firstly, you should analyze the sentence structure, thus catching the meaning of the sentence. Secondly, find the proper words to translate the meaning of the source language into the target language. Thirdly, revise your translation at least three times to check if there are any mistranslations or missed meanings.

  I hope my advice helpful. Wish to see you soon.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  【试题点评】具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网冲刺阶段英语冲刺班的作文部分有重点讲解,在基础班的词汇基础、语法、长难句基础等部分,和强化班的写作部分也均有涉及。

  Part B
  
  48. Directions:

  Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  【参考范文】

  Portrayed in the above pie chart is a survey of college students' purposes of traveling. The number of students who take traveling as a chance to see beautiful scenes accounts for 37%, while students who would like to travel to relieve pressure from study take up 35 %.

  There are several reasons behind the trend revealed in the above chart. To begin with, as the present society is filled with fierce competition, most college students nowadays are under great pressure to stand out among others or to lunch a decent job after graduation. Therefore, they tend to choose traveling as an outlet to relieve their stress. Secondly, with the fast advancement of the living standards of Chinese families, traveling is increasingly affordable to most college students. For this reason, students prefer to travel to see different views to enjoy themselves or to make some friends.

  From my perspective, no matter what reason it is for, traveling is of great benefit for students to acquire a broader perspective of life. If time permits, we college students should go to see the outside world more often.

  【试题点评】具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网冲刺阶段英语冲刺班的作文部分有重点讲解,在基础班的词汇基础、语法、长难句基础等部分,和强化班的写作部分也均有涉及。

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方案价格购买方案价格购买方案价格购买
    考研政治 方案 580元  购买 方案 1500元  购买 方案 3500元  购买
    考研英语 方案 620元  购买 方案 1500元  购买 方案 3500元  购买
    考研数学 方案 1600元  购买 方案 1500元  购买 方案 3500元  购买

医学硕士

基础班强化班冲刺班全程班
方案价格购买 方案价格购买方案价格购买方案价格购买
    中医综合 方案 420元  购买 方案 360元  购买 方案 300元  购买 方案 880元  购买
    西医综合 方案 420元  购买 方案 360元  购买 方案 300元  购买 方案 880元  购买

管理类联考

基础班强化班冲刺班全程班
方案价格购买 方案价格购买方案价格购买方案价格购买
    管理类联考 方案 1600元  购买 方案 1600元  购买 方案 1200元  购买 方案 4500元  购买
    英语二 方案 900元  购买 方案 800元  购买 方案 800元  购买 方案 2700元  购买
    两科联报 管综+英语二(比单报 优惠1400元) 方案 5800元  购买